What does sham procedure mean?
A sham procedure can be defined as one performed on a control group participant to ensure that he or she experiences the same incidental effects of the operation or procedure as do those participants on whom a true operation is performed (7).
Is sham surgery ethical?
Surgical clinical trials have seldom used a “sham” or placebo surgical procedure as a control, owing to ethical concerns. Recently, several ethical commentators have argued that sham surgery is either inherently or presumptively unethical.
What does sham control mean in research?
A sham control has been broadly defined as “a treatment or procedure that is performed as a control and that is similar to, but omits a key therapeutic element of the treatment or procedure under investigation” .
What is the difference between sham and placebo?
Placebo and sham treatment are methods used in medical trials to help researchers determine the effectiveness of a drug or treatment. Placebos are inactive substances used to compare results with active substances. And in sham treatments, the doctor goes through the motions without actually performing the treatment.
What is the purpose of a sham lesion control?
Historically, studies in animals also allowed the removal or alteration of an organ; using sham-operated animals as control, deductions could be made about the function of the organ. Sham interventions can also be performed as controls when new surgical procedures are developed.
What is sham acupuncture?
Sham acupuncture (SA), also called placebo acupuncture (PA), performed away from the acupuncture points established by TCM or without stimulation and manipulation to avoid eliciting “De Qi” sensations or using a non-penetrating technique, is used as control in scientific studies to determine the efficacy of acupuncture …
What are placebo or sham groups controlling for?
Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham “placebo” treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect.
What is sham smoking?
They were instructed to either smoke or sham smoke their own brand of cigarette as normally as possible. … Sham smoking is often used in smoking experimentation as a control for various aspects of smoking.
What does placebo mean?
A placebo is anything that seems to be a “real” medical treatment — but isn’t. It could be a pill, a shot, or some other type of “fake” treatment. What all placebos have in common is that they do not contain an active substance meant to affect health.
What is blinding in a study?
Blinding refers to the concealment of group allocation from one or more individuals involved in a clinical research study, most commonly a randomized controlled trial (RCT).