Why can transcription and translation occur simultaneously in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes?
This is because there is no nucleus in prokaryotes that separates the transcription and translation process. Therefore, when bacterial genes are transcribed then transcripts begin to translate immediately. Prokaryotic transcription occurs in the cytoplasm alongside translation and both processes occur simultaneously.
Why is simultaneous transcription and translation impossible in eukaryotes?
Prokaryotic transcription and translation can occur simultaneously. This is impossible in eukaryotes, where transcription occurs in a membrane-bound nucleus while translation occurs outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm.
Why does transcription and translation occur at the same time in bacteria?
In bacteria, mRNA is translated into protein as soon as it is transcribed. Unlike eukaryotic cells, bacteria do not have a distinct nucleus that separates DNA from ribosomes, so there is no barrier to immediate translation.
How does eukaryotic transcription and translation differ from that of bacteria?
In eukaryotes, transcription and translation take place in different cellular compartments: transcription takes place in the membrane-bounded nucleus, whereas translation takes place outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm. Indeed, the translation of bacterial mRNA begins while the transcript is still being synthesized.
Is translation the same in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Translation is a universal process occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The fundamental process of translation is same in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Members of both groups uses information present in mRNA, which is came from the DNA by transcription, to synthesize proteins with ribosome as the machinery.
Why isnt DNA used in translation directly?
DNA cannot be converted into protein directly because there are enzymes available to translate DNA directly into protein.
Why can’t eukaryotes transcribe and translate efficiently?
Prokaryotic transcription and translation can occur simultaneously. This is impossible in eukaryotes, where transcription occurs in a membrane-bound nucleus while translation occurs outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm. Many of these transcription factors are homodimers containing helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motifs.
How is transcription different in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
There is no such structure seen in prokaryotes. Another main difference between the two is that transcription and translation occurs simultaneously in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes the RNA is first transcribed in the nucleus and then translated in the cytoplasm. Eukaryotes contain mRNAs that are monocystronic.
What is similar between transcription and translation?
Transcription is the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template where the code in the DNA is converted into a complementary RNA code. Translation is the synthesis of a protein from an mRNA template where the code in the mRNA is converted into an amino acid sequence in a protein.
What are the steps of transcription in prokaryotes?
Transcription involves four steps:
- Initiation. The DNA molecule unwinds and separates to form a small open complex.
- Elongation. RNA polymerase moves along the template strand, synthesising an mRNA molecule.
- Termination. In prokaryotes there are two ways in which transcription is terminated.
What is the correct for bacterial transcription?
In bacteria, transcription and translation can occur simultaneously in the cytoplasm of the cell, whereas in eukaryotes transcription occurs in the nucleus and translation occurs in the cytoplasm.
Is transcription or translation faster?
Interestingly, since every 3 base pairs code for one amino acid, the rates of the two processes are nearly matched and as noted above, this is probably not accidental. Translation that is faster than transcription would cause the ribosome to “collide” with the RNA polymerase.
What is the main function of tRNA?
Transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that helps decode a messenger RNA ( mRNA ) sequence into a protein. tRNAs function at specific sites in the ribosome during translation, which is a process that synthesizes a protein from an mRNA molecule.
What is the cellular location of the stages of translation in bacteria and eukaryotes?
In prokaryotes ( bacteria and archaea), translation occurs in the cytoplasm, where the large and small subunits of the ribosome bind to the mRNA. In eukaryotes, translation occurs in the cytosol or across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in a process called co- translational translocation.
How is translation initiated in eukaryotes?
Translation initiation is a complex process in which initiator tRNA, 40S, and 60S ribosomal subunits are assembled by eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) into an 80S ribosome at the initiation codon of mRNA. Initiation on a few mRNAs is cap-independent and occurs instead by internal ribosomal entry.